New relevant papers

2023 papers

Clapp, C. E., Smith, J. B., Bedka, K. M., and Anderson, J. G., 2023: Distribution of cross-tropopause convection within the Asian monsoon region from May through October 2017, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3279–3298,

Punge, H. J., Bedka, K. M., Kunz, M., Bang, S. D., and Itterly, K. F., 2023: Characteristics of hail hazard in South Africa based on satellite detection of convective storms, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1549–1576,

Van Eaton, A., J. Lapierre, S. A. Behnke, C. Vegasky, C. Schultz, M. Pavolonis, K. M. Bedka, and K. Khlopenkov. Lightning rings and gravity waves: Insights into the giant eruption plume from Tonga’s Hunga Volcano on 15 January 2022. Geophysical Research Letters. Accepted

2022 papers

Bell, J., K. M. Bedka, C. S. Schultz, A. Molthan, J. Gilsan, R. Wolf, T. Ford, K. Itterly, and co-authors, 2022: Satellite-Based Characterization of Convection and Impacts from the Catastrophic 10 August 2020 Midwest U.S. Derecho. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 103(4), E1176-E1200. Retrieved Apr 13, 2022, from

Leinonen, J., U. Hamann, U. Germann, & J. R. Mecikalski, 2022
Seamless lightning nowcasting with recurrent-convolutional deep learning
Artificial Intelligence for the Earth Systems
also as preprint here

Leinonen, J., U. Hamann, U. Germann, & J. R. Mecikalski, 2022
Nowcasting thunderstorm hazards using machine learning: the impact of data sources on performance
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 22.2 (2022): 577-597;

Manzato, A., Serafin, S., Miglietta, M. M., Kirshbaum, D., & Schulz, W. (2022).
A Pan-Alpine Climatology of Lightning and Convective Initiation,
Monthly Weather Review, 150(9), 2213-2230

Manzato, A., Cicogna, A., Centore, M., Battistutta, P., & Trevisan, M. (2022).  Hailstone characteristics in NE Italy from 29 years of hailpad data,  Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, in press.

Yano, J.I., and A. Manzato (2022.) Does More Moisture in the Atmosphere Lead to More Intense Rains? Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79, 663-681,

2021 papers

Apke, J. M., and J. R. Mecikalski, 2021: On the Origin of Rotation Derived from Super Rapid Scan Satellite Imagery at the Cloud Tops of Severe Deep Convection. Mon. Wea. Rev.149, 1827–1851,

Clapp, C. E.,  Smith, J. B.,  Bedka, K. M., &  Anderson, J. G. (2021).  Identifying outflow regions of North American monsoon anticyclone-mediated meridional transport of convectively influenced air masses in the lower stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres,  126, e2021JD034644.

Cooney, J. W.,  Bedka, K. M.,  Bowman, K. P.,  Khlopenkov, K. V., &  Itterly, K. (2021). Comparing tropopause-penetrating convection identifications derived from NEXRAD and GOES over the contiguous United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres,  126, e2020JD034319.

Khlopenkov, K. V.,  Bedka, K. M.,  Cooney, J. W., &  Itterly, K. (2021).  Recent advances in detection of overshooting cloud tops from longwave infrared satellite imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres,  126, e2020JD034359.

Mecikalski, J. R., Sandmæl, T. N., Murillo, E. M., Homeyer, C. R., Bedka, K. M., Apke, J. M., & Jewett, C. P. (2021). A Random-Forest Model to Assess Predictor Importance and Nowcast Severe Storms Using High-Resolution Radar–GOES Satellite–Lightning Observations, Monthly Weather Review149(6), 1725-1746. Retrieved May 28, 2021, from

Simon, André; Martin Belluš; Katarína Čatlošová; Mária Derková; Martin Dian; Martin Imrišek; Ján Kaňák; Ladislav Méri; Michal Neštiak; Jozef Vivoda (2021): Numerical simulations of June 7, 2020 convective precipitation over Slovakia using deterministic, probabilistic, and convection-permitting approaches. IDŐJÁRÁS Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service Vol. 125, No. 4, October – December, 2021, pp. 571–607, DOI:10.28974/idojaras.2021.4.3.

Strapp, J., Schwarzenboeck, A., Bedka, K., Bond, T. et al., 2021: “Comparisons of Cloud In Situ Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Clouds to Appendix D/P Using Data from the High-Altitude Ice Crystals-High Ice Water Content and High Ice Water Content-RADAR I Flight Campaigns,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 14(2):127-159, 2021,

Wilhelm, J., Mohr, S., Punge, H. J., Mühr, B., Schmidberger, M., Daniell, J. E., Bedka, K. M., and Kunz, M., 2021: Severe thunderstorms with large hail across Germany in June 2019, Weather, 76, 228– 237,

2020 papers

Cooney, J. W., Bedka, K. M., Bowman, K. P., Khlopenkov, K., & Itterly, K. (2020). Comparing tropopause-penetrating convection identifications derived from NEXRAD and GOES over the contiguous United States, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. Accepted

Jones, T. A., and Coauthors including K. M. Bedka, 2020: Assimilation of GOES-16 Radiances and Retrievals into the Warn-on-Forecast System. Mon. Wea. Rev.,  148, 1829–1859,

Manzato, A, Riva, V, Tiesi, A, Marcello Miglietta, M., 2020:
Observational analysis and simulations of a severe hailstorm in northeastern Italy,
Quarterly Journal of RMS,  in press,

Scarino, B. R., Bedka, K., Bhatt, R., Khlopenkov, K., Doelling, D. R., and Smith Jr., W. L.: A kernel-driven BRDF model to inform satellite-derived visible anvil cloud detection, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5491–5511,, 2020.

Jun-Ichi Yano , Maarten H. P. Ambaum , Helen F. Dacre & Agostino Manzato(2020). A dynamical–system description of precipitation over the tropics and the midlatitudes,Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 72:1, 1-17.

2019 papers

Bedka, K., Yost, C., Nguyen, L., Strapp, J.W. et al., 2019: “Analysis and Automated Detection of Ice Crystal Icing Conditions Using Geostationary Satellite Datasets and In Situ Ice Water Content Measurements,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1953, 2019, doi:10.4271/2019-01-1953 | PDF

Clapp, C. E., Smith, J. B., Bedka, K. M., & Anderson, J. G. (2019).  Identifying source regions and the distribution of cross-tropopause convective outflow over North America during the warm season. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres,  124(24),  13750– 13762.

Heikenfeld, M., P. J. Marinescu, M. Christensen, D. Watson-Parris, F. Senf, S. C. van den Heever, and P. Stier (2019), tobac 1.2: towards a flexible framework for tracking and analysis of clouds in diverse datasets, Geosci. Model Dev., 12(11), 4551–4570.

Manzato, A., A. Pucillo and A. Cicogna, 2019:
Improving ECMWF-based 6-hours maximum rain using instability indices and neural networks,
Atmospheric Research,  217, 184-197.

Pucillo, A, Miglietta, MM, Lombardo, K, Manzato, A., 2019:
Application of a simple analytical model to severe winds produced by a bow echo like storm in northeast Italy,
Meteorol Appl., 18pp, 27:e1868,

Moraes, Macia C. da S.;Tenorio, Ricardo S.;Sampaio, Elsa;Barbosa, Humberto A.;dos Santos, Carlos A.C.;Yoon, Hong-Joo;Kwon, Byung-Hyuk. Kinetic Energy Rate of the Rain Drops Based on the Impact Signal Analysis. The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences , vol. 14, Issue 4, pp. 743-754, 2019. doi:

Pscheidt, I., F. Senf, R. Heinze, S. Trömel, H. Deneke, and C. Hohenegger (2019), How Organized is Deep Convection over Germany?, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 145, 2366–2384

Sandmæl, Thea N. , Cameron R. Homeyer,.Kristopher M. Bedka, Jason M. Apke,
John R. Mecikalski, Konstantin Khlopenkov: Evaluating the Ability of Remote Sensing Observations to Identify Significantly Severe and Potentially Tornadic Storm. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Early Online Release, 2019. | PDF

2018 papers

Apke, J.M., J.R. Mecikalski, K. Bedka, E.W. McCaul, C.R. Homeyer, and C.P. Jewett, 2018: Relationships between Deep Convection Updraft Characteristics and Satellite-Based Super Rapid Scan Mesoscale Atmospheric Motion Vector–Derived Flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 146, 3461–3480, | PDF

Bedka, K., E.M. Murillo, C.R. Homeyer, B. Scarino, and H. Mersiovsky, 2018: The Above-Anvil Cirrus Plume: An Important Severe Weather Indicator in Visible and Infrared Satellite Imagery. Wea. Forecasting, 33, 1159–1181, | PDF

Kunz, M., Blahak, U., Handwerker, J., Schmidberger, M., Punge, H. J., Mohr, S., Fluck, E. and Bedka, K. M., 2018: The severe hailstorm in southwest Germany on 28 July 2013: characteristics, impacts and meteorological conditions. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., doi:10.1002/qj.3197

NISI, L., HERING A., GERMANN U., MARTIUS O.: A 15-year hail streak climatology for the Alpine region. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 2018. doi: 10.1002/qj.3286.

Počakal, Damir; Večenaj, Željko; Mikuš Jurković, Petra; Grisogono, Branko:
Analysis of orographic influence on hail parameters in NW Croatia. International journal of climatology, 38 (2018), 15;  5646-5658,

Wapler, K., Banon Peregrin, L. M., Buzzi, M., Heizenreder, D., Kann, A., Meirold-Mautner, I., Simon, A., Wang, Y.: Conference Report 2nd European Nowcasting Conference, Meteorol. Z., vol. 27 no. 1, p. 81-84, 2018. doi: 10.1127/metz/2017/0870.

2017 and 2016 papers

Bedka, K. M., and K. Khlopenkov, 2016: A probabilistic multispectral pattern recognition method for detection of overshooting cloud tops using passive satellite imager observations.  J. Appl. Meteor. And Climatol. 55, 1983–2005, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0249.1

Bedka, K. M., J. T. Allen, H-J. Punge, M. Kunz, and D. Simanovic, 2017: A long-term overshooting convective cloud top detection database over Australia derived from MTSAT Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager observations. In review in J. Appl. Meteor. and Climatol.

Bley, S., Deneke, H. and Senf, F., 2016: Meteosat-Based Characterization of the Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Warm Convective Cloud Fields over Central Europe, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 55, 2181-2195.

Bley, S., H. Deneke, F. Senf, and L. Schenk (2017), Metrics for the evaluation of warm convective cloud fields in a large eddy simulation with Meteosat images, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 143(705), 2050–2060. [pdf]

COSTA, SIMONE M. S.; NEGRI, RENATO G.; FERREIRA, NELSON J.; SCHMIT, TIMOTHY J.; ARAI, NELSON; FLAUBER, WAGNER; CEBALLOS, Juan; VILA, Daniel; RODRIGUES, JURANDIR; Machado, Luiz A.; PEREIRA, SÉRGIO; BOTTINO, MARCUS JORGE; SISMANOGLU, RAFFI AGOP; LANGDEN, PEDRO. A Successful Practical Experience on Dedicated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites- GOES -10/12 Supporting Brazil. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, v. online, p. BAMS-D-16-0029.1, 2017.

DAVOLIO, S.; VOLONTÉ, A.; MANZATO, A.; PUCILLO, A.; CICOGNA, A; FERRARIO, M. E.: Mechanisms producing different precipitation patterns over north-eastern Italy: insights from HyMeX-SOP1 and previous events. Quarterly Journal of RMS, 2016. DOI: 10.1002/qj.2731.

Homeyer, C.R., J.D. McAuliffe, and K. M. Bedka: On the development of above-anvil cirrus plumes in extratropical convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 1617-1633, 2017. doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0269.1. | PDF

JÄKEL, EVELYN; WENDISCH, MANFRED; KRISNA, TRISMONO C.; EWALD, FLORIAN; KÖLLING, TOBIAS; JURKAT, TINA; VOIGT, CHRISTIANE; CECCHINI, MICAEL A.; MACHADO, Luiz A. T.; AFCHINE, ARMIN; COSTA, ANJA; KRÄMER, MARTINA; ANDREAE, MEINRAT O.; PÖSCHL, ULRICH; ROSENFELD, DANIEL; YUAN, TIANLE. Vertical distribution of the particle phase in tropical deep convective clouds as derived from cloud-side reflected solar radiation measurements. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS (ONLINE), v. 17, p. 9049-9066, 2017.

Manzato, A., Cicogna, A. and A. Pucillo, 2016:
6-hour maximum rain in Friuli Venezia Giulia: Climatology and ECMWF-based forecasts,
Atmospheric Research,  169 B, 465-484.

MARTIUS O., HERING A., KUNZ M., MANZATO A., MOHR S., NISI L., TREFALT S: Challenges and recent Advances in Hail Research – A report from the 2nd European Hail Workshop, 2017. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0207.1

MECIKALSKI, John R.; ROSENFELD, Daniel; MANZATO, Agostino. Evaluation of Geostationary Satellite Observations and the Development of a 1-2 hour Prediction Model for Future Storm Intensity: Forecasting Storm Intensity. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 2016, 121, DOI: 10.1002/2016JD024768
Link to publication

MIGLIETTA, Mario Marcello; MANZATO, Agostino; ROTUNNO, Richard. Characteristics and Predictability of a Supercell during HyMeX SOP1: Characteristics and Predictability of a Supercell during HyMeX SOP1. Quarterly Journal RMS, 2016. DOI: 10.1002/qj.2872
Link to publication

NETO, Carlos Pinto da Silva; BARBOSA, H.A.; BENETI, C.A. A method for convective storm detection using satellite data. Atmósfera, 2016, 29, 4, 343-358, ISSN 2395-8812. doi: 10.20937/ATM.2016.29.04.05.

NISI L., MARTIUS O., HERING A., KUNZ M., GERMANN U.: Spatial and temporal distribution of hailstorms in the Alpine region: A long-term, high resolution, radar-based analysis. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142(697), 1590-1604, 2016. doi: 10.1002/qj.2771

Punge, H-J, K. M. Bedka, M. Kunz, A. Reinbold: Hail frequency estimation across Europe based on a combination of overshooting top detections and the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis. Atmos. Res., 2017.

Rempel, M., F. Senf, and H. Deneke (2017), Object-based metrics for forecast verification of convective development with geostationary satellite data, Mon. Wea. Rev., 145(8), 3161–3178. [pdf]

Renko, Tanja; Kuzmić, Josipa; Šoljan, Vinko; Strelec Mahović, Nataša:
Waterspouts in the Eastern Adriatic from 2001 to 2013. Natural hazards, 81 (2016), 1;  441-470, doi:10.1007/s11069-016-2192-5

SCHEMM S., NISI L., MARTINOV A., LEUENBERGER D., MARTIUS O.: On the link between cold fronts and hail in Switzerland. Atmospheric science letters, 17(5), 315-325, 2016. doi: 10.1002/asl.660.

Senf, F. and Deneke, H.: Uncertainties in synthetic Meteosat SEVIRI infrared brightness temperatures in the presence of cirrus clouds and implications for evaluation of cloud microphysics, Atmos.Res., 2016, 183, 113-129.

Senf, F. and Deneke, H., (2017): Satellite-based characterization of convective growth and glaciation properties in relation to precipitation formation over Central Europe. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 56, 1827–1845

Smith, J. B., D. M. Wilmouth, K. M. Bedka, K. P. Bowman, C. R. Homeyer, J. A. Dykema, M. R. Sargent, C. Clapp, S. S. Leroy, D. S. Sayres, J. M. Dean-Day, T. P. Bui, and J. G. Anderson, 2017: A case study of convectively sourced water vapor observed in the overworld stratosphere over the United States, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., in press, doi:10.1002/2017JD026831. Available online at:

Thiery, W, L. Gudmundsson, K. M. Bedka, F. H. Semazzi, S. Lhermitte, P. Willems, N. van Lipzig, S. Seneviratne: Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria. Environ. Res. Lett., 2017, 12.7.

Ukkonen, P., A. Manzato, and A. Makela, 2017:
Evaluation of thunderstorm predictors for Finland using reanalyses and neural networks,
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology,  56, 2335-2352.

Wang P.K., Cheng K.-Y., Setvák M, and Wang C.-K., 2016: The origin of the gullwing-shaped cirrus above an Argentinian thunderstorm as seen in CALIPSO images, J.Geophys.Res. Atmos., 121, 3729-3738, DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024111.

WAPLER, Kathrin. The life-cycle of hailstorms: Lightning, radar reflectivity and rotation characteristics. Atmospheric Research, 2017.

WAPLER, Kathrin; HENGSTEBECK, Thomas, GROENEMEIJER, Pieter. Mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar, Atmospheric Research, 2016, 168, 112-120, ISSN 0169-8095.

Yost, C. R., K. M. Bedka, P. Minnis, L. Nguyen, J. W. Strapp, R. Palikonda, K. Khlopenkov, D. Spangenberg, W. L. Smith Jr., A. Protat and J. Delanoe, 2017: A prototype method for diagnosing high ice water content probability using satellite imager data. In review in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Available online at:

Relevant papers – year 2015 or earlier

Babić, Karmen; Mikuš, Petra; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja:
The relationship between shallow thermal circulation regimes and cumulonimbus clouds along the northeastern Adriatic coast. Geofizika, 29 (2012), 1; 103-120

Bedka, K. M., C. Wang, R. Rogers, L. D. Carey, W. Feltz, and J. Kanak, 2015: Examining deep convective cloud evolution using total lightning, WSR-88D, and GOES-14 super rapid scan datasets. Wea. Forecasting, 30, 571–590, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-14-00062.1.

FEUDALE, L. and MANZATO, A.: Cloud–to–Ground Lightning Distribution and its Relationship with Orography and anthropogenic emissions in the Po Valley.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 2014, 53, 2651-2670.

Ivančan-Picek, Branka; Horvath, Kristian; Strelec Mahović, Nataša; Gajić-Čapka, Marjana:
Forcing mechanisms of a heavy precipitation event in the southern Adriatic area. Natural hazards, 72 (2014), 2; 1231-1252, doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1066-y

12 September 2012: A supercell outbreak in NE Italy?. Atmos. Res. 2014, 153, 98-118.

MARTIUS O., KUNZ M., NISI L., HERING A.: Conference Report 1st European Hail Workshop. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 24: 441-442, 2015.

Mikuš, Petra; Strelec Mahović, Nataša:
Satellite-based overshooting top detection methods and an analysis of correlated weather conditions. Atmospheric research, 123 (2012), 268-280, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.09.001

Mikuš Jurković, Petra; Strelec Mahović, Nataša; Počakal, Damir:
Lightning, Overshooting Top and Hail Characteristics for Strong Convective Storms in Central Europe: Atmospheric research, 161/162 (2015), 153-168, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.03.020

Mikuš, Petra; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Strelec Mahović, Nataša:
Analysis of the convective activity and its synoptic background over Croatia. Atmospheric research, 104/105 (2012), 139-153, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.09.016

NEGRI, R. G.; MACHADO, Luiz A. T. ; BORDE, R.. Inner convective system cloud-top wind estimation using multichannel infrared satellite images. International Journal of Remote Sensing (Print), v. 35, p. 651-670, 2014.

NISI, Luca; AMBROSETTI, P.; CLEMENTI, L. Nowcasting severe convection in the Alpine region: The COALITION approach. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 2014, 140.682: 1684-1699.

Poljak, Gabrijela; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Kvakić, Marko; Strelec Mahović, Nataša; Babić, Karmen
Wind patterns associated with the development of daytime thunderstorms over Istria. Annales Geophysicae, 32 (2014), 401-420, doi:10.5194/angeo-32-401-2014

Putsay M., Simon A., Setvák M.; Szenyán I., Kerkmann J., 2013: Simultaneous observation of above-anvil ice plume and plume-shaped BTD anomaly atop a convective storm. Atmos. Research, 123, 293-304.
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.07.025.

Renko, Tanja, Kozarić, Tomislav, Tudor, Martina: An assessment of waterspout occurrence in the Eastern Adriatic basin in 2010: synoptic and mesoscale environment and forecasting method. Atmospheric Research, 123 (2013), 71–81.

Senf, F., Dietzsch, F., Hünerbein A. and Deneke, H., 2015: Characterization of initiation and growth of selected severe convective storms over Central Europe with MSG-SEVIRI. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 54, p. 207-224.

Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Strelec Mahović, Nataša:
Northern Adriatic meteorological tsunamis: observations, link to the atmosphere and predictability. Journal of geophysical research, 117 (2012), C2; C02002-1, doi:10.1029/2011JC007608

SETVAK, Martin, BEDKA, Kris, LINDSEY, D.T., SOKOL, A., CHARVAT, Z., ŠTASTKA, J., WANG, Pao K., 2013: A-Train observations of deep convective storm tops. Atmos. Research, 123, 229-248. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.020.

Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Ranguelov, Boyko; Strelec-Mahović, Nataša; Tinti, Stefano
Possible atmospheric origin of the 7 May 2007 western Black Sea shelf tsunami event. Journal of geophysical research, 115 (2010), C07006-1, doi:10.1029/2009JC005904

Vilibić, Ivica; Horvath, Kristian; Strelec Mahović, Nataša, Monserrat, Sebastian; Marcos, Marta; Amores, Angel; Fine, Isaac:
Atmospheric processes responsible for generation of the 2008 Boothbay meteotsunami. Natural hazards, 74 (2014), 1; 25-53, doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0811-y

WAPLER, Kathrin; HARNISCH, Florian; PARDOWITZ, Tobias; SENF, Fabian. Characterisation and predictability of a strong and a weak forcing severe convective event – a multi-data approach, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 2015, 24.4, 393-410.

WAPLER, Kathrin; JAMES, Paul. Thunderstorm occurrence and characteristics in Central Europe under different synoptic conditions, Atmospheric Research 2015, 158-159, 231-244, ISSN 0169-8095.

WAPLER, Kathrin. High-resolution climatology of lightning characteristics within Central Europe,  Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 2013, 122, 3, 175-184.

WAPLER, Kathrin; GOEBER, M., and TREPTE, S.: Comparative verification of different nowcasting systems to support optimisation of thunderstorm warnings, Adv. Sci. Res., 2012, 8, 121-127, doi:10.5194/asr-8-121-2012, 2012.

ŽIBERT, Mateja Iršič; ŽIBERT, Janez. Monitoring and automatic detection of the cold-ring patterns atop deep convective clouds using Meteosat data.Atmospheric Research, 2013, 123: 281-292.